leslie's guiding traditions

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Prior to World War 2, Rangers had a range of interest badges to work for.  The coming of World War 2 saw these dropped as the section focussed in their new challenge, the "Home Emergency Service" badge and armlet, which focussed on key wartime training.  Following the war the badges did not return, instead there was a system of themed certificates, for which metal bar badges could be won.  The range was: 

1964 (March) POR - Air Service Certificate


Aeromodeller

1) Construct a model plane from a printed plan, showing that she understands:

The directions given; the necessity for longitudinal and lateral stability; the value of aspect-ratio of the wings and tailplane in giving lift.

2) Fly a model of her own construction with a Model Flying Club.

3) Know the precautions to take to prevent damage to plane and property.  Repair a damaged model.

Note: A high standard of craftsmanship is required throughout.


Aircraft Recognition

1) Make a list of the component parts of an aircraft and state their functions.

2) Know the general characteristics of: a heavy bomber, a freighter, an airliner, a fighter aircraft, a jet propelled aircraft, a light club aircraft, a helicopter.

3) Recognise from silhouettes and photographs twenty aircraft; identify ten normally seen flying over her part of the country.


Air Crew

1) Hold the Leading Air Ranger badge and prove that her knowledge is up to date.

2) a) Keep a flying log (minimum flying time three hours either as a passenger or pupil), the log to specify type of aircraft, course, height, and speed.

b) Describe the interior layout and emergency facilities of this type of aircraft.

3) Know the safety precautions to be taken by a pilot before taking off.

4) Be able to read at least three aircraft instruments other than the air-speed indicator and altimeter, and know their purpose.

5) Know:

a) The rules of the air.

b) The certificate and licences required to be carried by a pilot when:

i) Flying in the home country.

ii) On a flight to a foreign country.

6) Understand what is meat by 'control zone' and 'airways'.


Air Hostess

1) Personal 

a) Have proved herself a smart and capable Ranger of the previous six months.

b Wear uniform to perfection; know ho to keep it free form stains and creases.

c) Know how to use cosmetics discretely and to the best advantage.

d) Answer questions on personal hygiene.

2) First Aid Safety, and Emergency Measures.

a) Pass Clause 4 of the Leading Air Ranger test.  Be able to use the contents of any first aid box supplied at the test.

b) Have examined the inside of a passenger aircraft.  Know the emergency evacuation rules.  Be able to give clear instructions on how to fasten and release the various types of seat-belt-extensions, and how to put on a life jacket.  Understand the use of escape ropes and the best method of getting out of port holes.

c) Know the smoking regulations in force in an airport and aircraft.  Show that she is alive to the danger of careless disposal of cigarette ends.

3) Observation

Prove that she can distinguish between at least twelve persons through connecting their names with their appearance, idiosyncracies, and belongings.

4) Children

a) Pass clause 7 of the Ranger Service Star.

b) Understand the hostess's responsibility regarding unaccompanied children.  Know how to keep a child of any age happily and quietly occupied in his seat; how to assist him in any situation that might commonly arise; how to give a report when handing him and his belongings over to another person.

5) Service to Passengers

a) Prepare and serve food in a hygenic manner.  Set two trays and carry them gracefully, one in each hand.  Demonstrate 'spoon and fork' service.

b) make tea and coffee remembering the variation of boiling point at height.

c) Prepare a baby's bottle with given materials; scald it after use.

d) Know  how to keep passenger quarters clean.  Make up a berth.

6) Languages

a) Be able to express herself in good English.  Have sufficient knowledge of another language (preferably Spanish) to deal with normal requirements.  Show that she can receive and impart information through signs.

b) Give a five minute talk explaining some point included in thy syllabus to be selected by the tester; or sustain a conversation with a stranger for five minutes.

Note: Throughout the test the candidate's poise, tact, and common sense are to be taken into account.


Air Mechanic

1) Understand the elementary principles of an internal combustion engine.

2) a) Know the difference between an air-cooled and a liquid-cooled aero engine.

b) Describe the functions of the following: fuel system, oil system, carburetor, ignition system, starting magneto, and impulse starter.

3) Understand the use of sparking plugs; test, remove, clean, and replace them.

4) Know the precautions necessary when refueling an aircraft.

5) Understand the movement of the control surfaces and trimming tabs of an aircraft or glider; be able to check each for full and correct movement.

6) Be able to detect corrosion, and apply treatment, including preventive treatment.

7) Demonstrate soft-soldering.


Glider Crew

1) Know the materials from which a normal glider is constructed, and the form of the construction.

2) Know how to rig at least one type of glider, and be capable of carrying out an inspection of safety before flight.

3) Know three methods of launching gliders; have assisted in at least one launching; understand the principles and practice of winch operation.

4) Demonstrate how to inspect and repair a launching cable by splicing and knotting; describe the purpose of weak lings and be able to make them.

5) Demonstrate the handling of a glider on the ground; know how to picket it, where it should be placed for launching, and what signals to give to the winch driver or tug pilot.

6) Be able to repair a small hole in the fabric or plywood skin of any part of the glider.


Meteorology

1) Describe the general characteristics associated with: a warm front, a cold front, a high-pressure area, a low-pressure area.

2) Classify the main types of cloud and describe their appearance; explain which are useful to a sailplane pilot, and why.

3) Explain the following: Buys-Ballot's law, isobar, geostrophic, dew point, tropo-pause.

4) Explain the use of the following: a wet-and-dry bulb thermometer, an anemometer, a barometer.

5) Interpret a standard weather map and make a route forecast for an imaginary flight at a given time.

6) Describe the purpose, work, and methods of the International Meteorological Organisation.


Navigation

1) Explain what is meant by the following: latitude, longitude, cardinal points, quadrantal points, great circle, rhumb line, small circle.

2) Understand the elementary principles of map-projection; interpret in detail an aviation map and aerial photograph.

3) Understand the principles and use of a magnetic compass, and explain the following: magnetic dip, northerly turning error; variation and deviation.

4) Understand the use of the triangle of velocities, and explain the following: air speed, ground speed, track course, wind velocity, drift bearing.

5) Work out a course on a navigational computer, given the track required, wind velocity, and true air speed; prepare a route card for the flight, flying by map reading.


Theory Of Flight

1) Describe the airflow over the wing of an aircraft, and explain the meaning of: downwash, centre of pressure, aspect-ratio, angle of attack, stalling angle.

2) Analyse the drag on an aeroplane - wing drag, parasite drag, and cooling drag - and explain how the drag can be reduced.

3) Explain how the stalling speed may be reduced by the use of slots and/or flaps.

4) Understand what stability means in the three planes, and how it is achieved.

5) Understand the meaning of: dihedral, yawing, rolling, pitching, sideslip, aileron drag, slip-stream and mass balance.

6) Explain the use of trimming devices.

1964 (March) POR - Child Service


Child Care

The syllabus applies to children of approximately 2 to 5 years.

Answer questions on:

1) The daily routing for children of the different ages.

2) The importance of cleanliness, fresh air, rest, exercise, and play in the natural development of a child.

3) Suitable feeding and the constitution of a well-balanced diet.

4) Winter and summer clothing.

5) Signs of illness and the immediate steps to be taken.

6) Prevention of accidents.

7) Welfare services (including clinics) in the district available for children.

While working for this certificate, the Ranger should study the development of children of these ages, especially in relation to self-reliance, attitude to authority, forms of play, habit training, attitude to other children, etc.

Practical:

1) Bath and put a child to bed.

2) Look after a child or small group of children for at least three consecutive hours, to cover a meal time.

3) Tell a story or teach an action song or singing game.

4) Take a child's temperature and demonstrate simple First Aid.

5) Make a pudding or other simple dish suitable for small children.


Infant Welfare

The syllabus applies to children under 2 years.

Answer questions on:

1) The daily routine for infants and toddlers.

2) The signs of a healthy baby and the normal stages in development.

3) The importance of exercise and play for infants and toddlers.

4) The importance of cleanliness and the dnagers of dirt, with regard to:

a) The child.

b) His surroundings.

5) The care of the eyes, nose, ears, and mouth of an infant.

6) The signs of illness and the immediate steps to be taken.

7) Breast feeding, artificial feeding, weaning, and the introduction of solid foods.

8) The feeding of the toddler, and the construction of a well-balanced diet.

9) The importance of food cleanliness, with special reference to:

a) The contamination of milk.

b) Keeping milk in the home.

10) Winter and summer clothing for infants and toddlers.

11) The Welfare centres (including clinics), in the district and the services available for infants and toddlers.

Practical:

1) Bath and dress a baby and make up a cot ready for use.

2) Make a garment for an infant.

3) Launder baby clothes, including nappies and woollies.

4) Prepare:

a) A feed.

b) A dish suitable for use at weaning, e.g. groats, barley, jelly, puree of vegetables.

5) Take charge of a toddler for at least half a day, to cover getting up in the morning or putting to bed at night.


Play Leadership

The syllabus applies to one of the following age groups, to be chosen by the candidate: under 5; 5 to 7; 7 to 11.

1) Have done practical work, such as helping with a Brownie Pack, nursery centre, play centre, etc.

2) Know:

a) Simple outdoor and indoor games and teach at least one to children at the test.

b) Suitable occupations (mental, manual, and physical); introduce at least one to a child or group of children at the test.

3) Teach a song, singing game, or the equivalent; or tell a story to children.

4) Show some knowledge of:

a) The signs and symptoms of common ailments.

b) Elementary First Aid.

c) Detection of skin and head infections.

d) How the simple health rules should be applied to children.

1964 (March) POR Amendments - Coast and River Service


LIFE SAVER

1) Throw a life-line to reach a person at least 15 yds. away.

2) Demonstrate the Holger Nielsen method of artificial respiration, and the treatment of the apparently drowned.  Have attended a demonstration of the expired air method of artificial respiration on film or film strip, or performed live by a qualified demonstrator.

3) Perform the land drill for the four methods of rescue and the three methods of release, as set out in the Handbook of the Royal Life Saving Society.  (Complete words of command may be used, as for the Intermediate Certificate of the R.L.S.S.)

The following clauses are to be carried out in the order laid down:

4) Swim 50 yds. in clothes.

Note: The clothing must be similar to that normally known, must be properly fastened, and consist of: blouse and skirt, or dress; knickers; stockings; rubber shoes.  It may be worn over a bathing dress.

5) Demonstrate in the water, clothed as in clause 4, any one method of release and rescue (combined), as approved by the R.L.S.S., and tow the subject 20 yds.  

After this clause the candidate may leave the water to remove the clothes.

6) Demonstrate in the water the second and third methods of release and rescue (combined), towing the  subject 20 yds.

7) By means of a surface dive and using both hands, pick up a brick from a depth of at least 5 ft; swimming on the back and holding it with both hands carry it ashore a distance of not less than 10 yds.  If the candidate fails to retrieve the brick the first time, she must do so successfully twice consecutively.

8) Put on a lifebuoy in the water.

An inflated inner tube may be used if a lifebuoy is not available.

9) Swim 50 yds. in good style using one of the following strokes: a) breast stroke; b) back stroke, using arms or with arms folded; c) trudgeon; d) crawl.

A holder of the Bronze Medallion of the Royal Life Saving Society (renewed within two years) is exempt from all clauses except 4, 5, and 8.


SEA LORE

1) Read the story of two voyages of discovery, undertaken at different periods, and describe the ships used and the life on board.

2) Read the life-story of two British admirals, and give a precis of the main events in their lives.

3) Know the history of two of the famous Clipper ships of the nineteenth century.

4) Know the principal trade routes of the world.

5) Know where the most important fishing grounds of the world are situated, and some of the methods of catching fish.


SHIPWRIGHT

1) Take an active part in the care and maintenance of a boat for a year; keep a notebook showing the work she has done.

Note: The tester is to inspect the boat, gear, and equipment and note their condition.

2) Show how to scrape, paint, and varnish a boat efficiently.

3) Pass three of the following clauses:

a) Caulk a boat.

b) Put a copper, lead, or zinc tingle on a boat.

c) Put a canvas patch or a wooden tingle on a boat.

d) Renew a painter, showing an eyesplice; and a backsplice or whipping or pointing.

e) Make a rope or canvas fender.

f) Leather an oar and renew copper band round blade.

g) Strop a block.

h) Put a brass eyelet into canvas.

I) Patch a sail or piece of canvas.

4) Know the various types of construction of rowing boats, and the different kinds of wood used.

5) Construct a sea-anchor or a hand lead-line and understand its use.


SIGNALLING TRANSMITTER

Either part may be taken to qualify.

Part I: Visual Signalling

1) Semaphore:

a) Receive 50 words of P/L at 10 w.p.m.

b) Transmit 50 words of P/L at 10 w.p.m.

2) Flashing:

a) Receive 25 words of P/L at 5 w.p.m.

b) Transmit 25 words of P/L at 5 w.p.m.

3) Know the flags and pennants of the International Code of Signals, and their letter meaning; be able to hoist them.

4) Know the N.A.T.O. phonetic alphabet.

5) Have a thorough knowledge of V/S procedure as laid down in Sea Sense.

6) Record signals correctly. 

Part II: Wireless Telegraphy - Buzzer

1) Receive:

a) 36 words of P/L in 3 minutes.

b) 20 groups of 5 letters each in 3 minutes.

c) 15 groups of 4 figures in 1 minute 50 seconds.

2) Transmit:

a) 16 words of P/L in 1 minute 20 seconds.

b) 12 groups of 5 letters in 1 minute 10 seconds.

c) 10 groups each of 4 figures in 1 minute 25 seconds.

3) Have a thorough knowledge of W/T procedure as laid down in Sea Sense.

4) Be able to tune and handle all equipment used.

5) Record signals correctly.


SKIN DIVER

1) Have passed the Endurance Test.

2) Float on back for 5 minutes (hand and leg movement permitted).

3) Be aware of the dangers of anoxia and of eardrum rupture.  Be able to 'clear ears' by pressure equalization through the eustachian tubes.

4) a) Submerge basic equipment, recover by duck diving, and fit whilst treading water.

b) Fin 200 yds. diving to bottom every 25 yds.

c) Fin 15 yds. under water.

d) Hold breath for 30 seconds under water.

e) Perform consecutively three forward rolls and three backward rolls.  (Breathing between rolls is permitted).

f) Fin 50 yds. with face submerged (using fins and snorkel tube but no mask).

5) Fin 500 yds. in open water.

6) Surface dive to the 18-21 ft. level.

Note: 4-6 to be completed with use of basic equipment of fins, mask, and snorkel tube.  (The snorkel must be of the single bend, open-end type; nose clips must not be worn).


SURF LIFE SAVER

1) Hold the Bronze Medallion of the Royal Life Saving Society  (renewed within two years).

2) Have a knowledge and appreciation of the potential dangers of the surf.

3) Be able to perform the Land Drill as set out by the Surf Life Saving Association of Great Britain.

4) Beginning with a surface dive, swim under water for 8 yds.


WATER NATURALIST

Either part may be taken to qualify.

Part I: Sea

1) Know the normal extent of high and low tide on her own shore, and the cause of unusual tides.

2) Know the local sea products and how they are obtained.

3) Make a collection of local seaweeds and know where they grow.

4) Make a record, with dates, of birds seen on shore or water, to include personal observations on the habits of six of them.

5) Collect and name twenty shells; explain the connection between their form and mode of life.

6) Make a special study of one rock pool and describe the habits of the creatures in it; or

Make a survey of a strip of shore, from above high-water mark to low-water mark.

7) Recognise six tracks on the shore; or

Find and name ten plants peculiar to shore or salt marsh.

8) At the test, identify on the shore six aquatic creatures, e.g. jellyfish, starfish, anemone, etc.

Part II: River or Inland Water

1) Have a general idea of the course of a local river from the source to the mouth, and know what industries are dependent on it.

2) Make a survey of one mile of a river and its banks.

3) Observe and describe the habits of six underwater creatures.

4) Make a record, with dates, of birds seen on or beside the water; include personal observations on the habits of six of them.

5) Recognise five tracks on a bank.

6) Find and name six plants that grow in the water, and twenty that grow on the bank.

1964 (March) POR - Community Service Certificate


A - Cultural

ARCHITECTURE

1) Understand and explain the following terms: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, apse, nave, clerestory, column, capital, arch, tracery, buttress, corbel, gargoyle, mullion, elevation, gable, turret, string course, cornice, foundation, sewer, drain, vaults, span, keystone.

2) Describe the characteristics of any two periods of architecture, e.g. Greek, Renaissance, Gothic, etc.

3) Describe the particular characteristics of modern architecture, giving illustrations from buildings erected since 1920 which she has seen.

4) Describe a famous building, preferably in her own neighbourhood, and give its history.  Draw a part of it which she especially admires; give reasons for her choice.

ART

Either part may be taken to qualify.

Part I

Pass one of the following clauses:

1) Illustrative Artist. - Show three pieces of work executed in any suitable medium, e.g. pen and ink, charcoal, 'wash' drawing, lino-cut, or wood-cut.

Indicate method of reproduction intended.

2) Painter - Show three paintings in oil, or water-colour, or pastel.

3) Craftsman - Show three examples of any one major craft, e.g. lettering and illuminating, pottery, fabric printing, dress design, poster-work, jewellery, book-binding, weaving, cabinet-work, etc.

4) Modeller - Show three pieces of modelling in round; or bas-relief; or plaque; or medallion; to be executed in clay, plasticine, wax, or other medium.

Part II

1) a) Give the history and characteristics of two schools of painting, e.g. Florentine, Venetian, Dutch, Eighteenth-Century English, etc.; give an account of at least three painters belonging to each; or

b) Study the art of a chosen country in relation to the history of the country, and give an account of at least six of its well-known artists.

2) Show a knowledge of the work of two well-known living artists in drawing, painting, or sculpture.

3) a) Mount or frame a reproduction of a picture by one of the artists chosen for clauses 1 or 2; or

b) Make an album-collection of at least six reproductions of the work of the artists chosen in clauses 1 and 2.

Give reasons for her choice.

4) a) Know the history and describe the principal possessions of a local art gallery or of a famous public or private art collection; or

b) Describe a local monument or piece of sculpture, both from the historical and artistic point of view; make a drawing of it and give her opinion of it.


BELLRINGER

1) Bring a statement from the Captain of Ringers showing that she has been regular and punctual in attending practice and Sunday ringing for at least three months.

2) Describe to a non-ringer the parts of a bell, how it is hung, and the technical terms used in her belfry.

3) a) Have read at least one book on the history of bells or bell ringing; or

b) Show some knowledge of the towers and bells in her own neighbourhood.

4) Raise and lower a bell in peal and ring rounds accurately.

5) Ring two standard methods on an inside bell.

6) Splice a rope and know how to change a rope and grease the bearings of a bell.


DRAMA

Part I and either Part II or Part III must be taken to qualify.

Part I

1) Read (and if possible see or hear): a Shakespeare play; a morality play (old or new); six contrasted plays of her own choice.

Be prepared to discuss all of them with the tester; quote from memory from the first two.

2) Keep a record of films and plays seen and heard (screen, stage, and/or television) during six months (not necessarily consecutive); include brief notes on quality of story, production, acting, photography, etc.

3) Make two of the following properties: crown, weapon, wings, cottage window, fire-place, cut-out of a tree.

Part II - Producer

1) Produce a dramatic item lasting not less than fifteen minutes, e.g. a scene from a play; a one-act play; a mime; a puppet show; an operetta; or a series of acted ballads, spoken or sung.  The performers may be children or adults.

Note: The tester may attend an entertainment or may judge a performance produced especially for the test.

2) Submit and explain a scheme for producing a play of her own choice, to include: a) lighting plot; b) rough sketches of costumes and setting; c) a time-table of rehearsals; d) a note on publicity; e) note on author's performing fee and any necessary licence.

3) Improvise a dramatic arrangement of a story, ballad, or song to be chosen by the tester.  The item should be suitable for a camp fire and may be either spoken or mimed.

Part III - Actor

1) Have played a part in a play; quote from it and discuss it.

2) At the test, act a monologue or a duologue (taking both parts) of her own choice.

3) Bring copies of three of the plays chosen for Part I clause 1 and read from them as directed by the tester.

4) Demonstrate on a friend with materials brought by herself the dry make-up of a character part (e.g. old woman, country girl, injured boy, etc.) as directed by the tester.


FLOWER ARRANGER

Part I - Theory

Answer questions on:

1) The preparation of flowers with special reference to woody stems, milky stems, etc.

2) The preparation of vases and containers; the use of moss, sand, flora pack, wire, and pin holders.

3) The use of all types of container, particularly the unorthodox such as old pottery, glass, copper and wooden vessels.

Part II - Practical Work

1) Make four arrangements using two of the following:

a) Posy rings or bars

b) Wall vases.

c) Boat-shaped or oval vases.

d) Jugs or tall vases.

2) Pass two of the following clauses:

a) Make an arrangement of media other than flowers, or an arrangement of flowers with special reference to colour or using an unusual container or showing a modern trend.

b) Make an arrangement for a particular occasion or for a particular position in either the tester's or the candidate's home.

c) Make an arrangement of wild flowers or other naturally wild material obtainable at the time of the test.

Note: the practical work need not necessarily all be carried out on the same day.


FOLK DANCER

Both parts must be taken to qualify.

Part I - National Dances

Pass one  of the following sections:

1) England

1) Perform in any place in the set the following eight dances: Belfast Hornpipe, Morpeth Rant, Steamboat, Cumberland Square, Circassian Circle, Waltz Country Dance, Norfolk Long Dance, Yorkshire Square.

2) Act as caller or teach one of the above dances.

Note: The dances are published in The Community Dance Manual, Cols. I and II, obtainable from the Sales Department, Cecil Sharp House, 2 Regent's Park Road, London, N.W.1, who also supply gramophone records.

2) Wales

1) Perform the Welsh Reel (six figures including Jigging, Swing Corners, and the Bridge, commencing with Towards the Harp and ending with the Circle or Towards the Harp).

2) Perform Croen y Ddafad Felan (solo poker dance) and any one dance from Welch Whim and Other Dances.

Note: The Welsh Reel and Welch Whim and Other Dances are published by the Gwynn Publishing Col, Llangollen; Croen y Ddafad Felan in Dewch I Ddawnsio is published by the University of Wales Press, Cardiff.

3) Scotland

1) Perform as either woman or man, in any place in the set: Machine without Horses, Lord Rosslyn's Fancy, Hamilton House, Jessie's Hornpipe, Monymusk, Rakes of Glasgow, Strathglass House, Braes of Tullimet.

2) Conduct a group of dancers through one of the first four dances on the list.

Note: The dances are obtainable in leaflet form from the Secretary, R.S.C.D.S., 12 Coates Crescent, Edinburgh, 3.

4) Northern Ireland

1) Hold the Guide Country Dance badge or be prepared to dance any of the dances included in it.

2) Perform six of the following dances: High Cane Cap, Haymaker's Jig, Lannigan's Ball, Bonfire Dance, Harvest Time Jig, Rowanella, Piper's Dance, Eight Hand Reel.

3) Know the jig step, side step, and three reel steps.

Note: The instructions for these dances can be obtained form Ulster Headquarters, 50 Upper Arthur Street, Belfast.

Part II - Dances of Other Countries

The dances are to be taken from a country other than that chosen for Part I.

Pass one of the following clauses:

1) Perform two dances from Series III of Scandinavian Dances or Series III of Folk Dances of Many Lands, both published by the Long Association.

2) Perform two American Square Dances.

3) Perform two English dances from Community Dance Manual, Vol. I

4) Perform two dances from Welsh Guide Country Dance syllabus.

5) Perform two dances from Scottish Country Dance Books 1 or 2.

6) Perform two dances from Irish Guide Country Dance syllabus.

Note: It is recommended that the tester be qualified and approved by a branch of the recognized Folk Dance Society of the country.

The candidate is to perform the movements in good style accurately, rhythmically, and with due appreciation and enjoyment of the musical and individual character of the dance.

The dances are given to show the required standard, but the tester may substitute other dances of equivalent scope and difficulty, requiring fewer dancers.


HANDWORK

Any one section to be taken to qualify.

I. Knitter

1) Make three garments, suitable for an adult, to include one of the following: dress, cardigan, jersey, pullover.

2) Make a pair of socks with a turned heel.

3) Introduce a fair-isle design or similar fancy work into one of the garments submitted for clauses 1 or 2.

4) Adapt printed directions to specified measurements.

Note: Not more than two garments may be made on a knitting machine.

II - Embroideress

1) Embroider a Sampler showing twelve stitches to include hemstitching, square stitch, double running, and cross stitch.  These are to be done by the counted thread, and the sampler is to have mitred corners.

2) Know the history and characteristics of such traditional work as double running, drawn fabric, and quilting.

3) Work two articles in the style of two traditional types of embroidery, showing that she understand how to adapt the designs to suit her purpose.

Note: Bought hemstitching is not permissible.  A very high standard of neatness and finish is required.

III - Bookbinder

1) Know the history of the making of books.  Know the pars of a book; the standard sizes of printing paper; the meaning of the terms: folio, quarto, octavo, frontispiece, index, and glossary.

2) Repair an old book.

3) Bind together loose copies of a magazine, or sheet music, or exercise books.

Note: Outside cases may be bought ready made.

4) Bind a book in half cloth and paper, or in half cloth and leather.

5) Make one of the following:

a) Whole leather binding.

b) Whole leather binding, all one design in blind.

c) An album, showing correct guarding, hollow back, covered with whole cloth.

6) Make a loose-leaf notebook, including outside case, of approximately 8 in. x 10 in.; in it make notes on apparatus required in binding; including samples of suitable materials, and brief notes as to where these may be obtained, prices, etc.

7) Mount:

a) A picture; or

b) A paper sheet survey map, in sections, made to fold.

8) Show an example of blind tooling and lettering.

IV - Leatherworker

1) Have a general knowledge of the chief processes of tanning.

2) Make notes on: six types of skins and the methods used to make them into leather: the countries from which they come; the purposes for which each is suitable.

3) Design and make, showing simple, appropriate decoration and thonging, two articles selected form the following: shopping bag, fitted pochette, book-carrier, slip-on book-cover, bellows, book blotter, spectacle case, pair of gloves, pair of slippers.

4) Make:

a) A plaited god-leash; or plaited handles for a shopping bag.

b) Some leather fastener buttons and loops.

V - Toycraft

The candidate is to state the age of the child for whom each toy is suitable.

1) Make a toy of some soft material or wool.

2) Make an animal, bird, or doll with moveable limbs.

3) a) Plan and model, using wood or cardboard, one of the following: bungalow and furniture, ship, aircraft, wheeled vehicle; or

b) Construct in wood a trolley or a wheelbarrow, the minimum size to be 1 ft.  in length excluding handles.

4) Make:

a) A wooden animal or set of animals, using a fretsaw; or

b) A toy mainly from scrap material, e.g. cotton-reels, matchboxes, etc.


LITERATURE

1) Keep a list of the books, magazines, and newspapers she has read whilst preparing for the test, and discuss with the tester what she has found of interest.

2) Keep a book of quotations which appeal to her and group them under subjects.

3) Read examples of different types of English poetry from an anthology, e.g. Golden Treasury, The Oxford Book of English Verse, Other Men's Flowers, etc.

4) Pass two of the following clauses:

a) Give examples of story-telling, oratory, and poetry in the Bible.

b) Read four essays by recognized essayists of different periods.

c) Read two nineteenth- and two twentieth-century classic novels.

5) Read a Shakespearian and a modern example of each of the three main types of drama, i.e. tragedy, comedy, and history.

6) a) Choose one of the following for special study: biography, autobiography, books of travel, fairy tales, poetry, history; or

b) Choose a great period of literature and be able to discuss three of its authors.


MUSIC

Part I and either Part II or Part III must be taken to qualify.

Part I

1) Keep a record for three months of the music she has heard in church, concert hall, on the radio, etc., to include symphonies, chamber music, and choral singing.

2) Know something of the life and work of two composers of different periods.

3) Recognise all the instruments of a symphony orchestra from pictures and find their parts in a full score.

Part II - Instrumental or Vocal

1) Play or sing 'God save the Queen'.

2) Pass any recognised examination approved by the tester as suitable to her age and opportunities.

3) For an Organist: Play a church service.

Note: If the instrument chosen is one for which there are no recognized examinations or if for some other reason clause 2 cannot be taken, the tester is to select two items to be played or sing from a list offered by the candidate.  The list should include at least six contrasted pieces of music.

Part III - Choral Singing

1) Conduct a company or patrol which she has trained, in singing a traditional folk-song, part-song or round.

Note: A traditional fold-song may be defined as one of which the composer has not been traced.

2) Be able to teach ten songs of her own choice from Camp Fire Songs or equivalent song book published by Commonwealth Headquarters.


COMMUNITY SERVICE

B - General


CITIZEN

Both parts must be taken to qualify.

Part I

Pass two to the following clauses:

1) Know how the country is governed.  Understand: the constitution and functions of Parliament; what the Cabinet is; why there are two Houses; how laws are made.  Have a knowledge of the functions and working of one of the following:

a) The National Health Service.

b) The National Assistance Board.

c) The Ministry of Labour and National Service.

2) Understand the working of her own local government, and show a knowledge of two of the following:

a) Local education system, including the granting of scholarships, continuation classes, etc.

b) Local health service (maternity and child welfare, sanitary inspection etc.).

c) Local housing schemes.

d) Local amenity services, e.g. libraries, baths, washhouses, parks, etc.; or

Rural areas: the activity of the Parish Council and library facilities.

3) Have a knowledge of the principal social welfare organisations in the neighourhood ; know where to go for information or in cases of distress, etc.

4) Have a knowledge of the work carried out by the local Youth Committee, and by two committees of the Town or District Council. Have attended a meeting of the Town or District Council.

Part II

Have carried out some voluntary service in town or village.


CIVIL DEFENCE

Owing to frequent changes, candidates should check syllabus with C.H.Q.

1) a) Be able to deal with an outbreak of fire; demonstrate methods of rescue from a burning building.

b) Demonstrate stirrup pump drill.

c) Know how to handle the types of fire extinguisher in general use.

2) Be able to deal wit: severe bleeding; wounds; burns; fractures; shock and asphyxiation.  Prepare a hot stimulant over a fire in the open.  Demonstrate the Holger Nielsen method of artificial respiration and have attended a demonstration of the expired air method of articifial respiration on film or film strip, or performed live by a qualified demonstrator.

3) Show a knowledge of Civil Defence organization; draw a map of her area showing positions of Civil Defence departments and principal buildings.

4) Show some knowledge of the dangers and effects of nuclear weapons, eg. heat, blast, radio activity (immediate and delayed).  Understand possible ways of protection.

5) Understand the principles of message writing and the ways of getting a message to Control under war conditions.  Write a given message in duplicate.

6) Demonstrate three ways of constructing improvised cookers out of doors; heat enough water to make 350 cups of tea.

7) Show some knowledge of the essential services in a Rest Centre.  Demonstrate bundling ant dying-up clothing.  Know how to make a blanket pack.

8) Have had experience of escorting children, old, and handicapped people.

Note: The tester must be a Civil Defence Instructor.  With the exception of clauses 1 and 2 the training must be given by a Civil Defence Instructor.  Training for Clause 4 can be given by a W.V.S. qualified 'one-in-five' speaker.  A candidate who has attended the first ten hours of a course in Civil Defence Corps training qualifies for this certificate.


FIRE-FIGHTING

1) Know her neighbourhood, including the whereabouts of fire stations, fire alarms and fire hydrants.  Know the local hydrant markings and the meaning of the symbols.

2) Know how to call the fire brigade, and be able to send a message that is intelligible and useful.

3) Know how to deal with the early stages of a fire, including methods of extinguishing it, e.g. beating, cooling, smothering, removing combustible material.

4) Demonstrate fire-fighting using fire extinguishers and water; know what other methods are employed by the fire brigade.

5) Know how to prevent 'fire-spread' in a building and out-of-doors.

6) Know the methods of rescue; demonstrate three of them.  Know how to use a chair knot.

7) Know: how to treat for shock; the First Aid treatment for electric shock and burns.  Demonstrate: the Holger Neilsen method of artificial respiration and have attended a demonstration of the expired air method of artificial respiration on film or film strip, or performed live by a qualified demonstrator; demonstrate triangular bandaging, including slings.


GUIDE KNOWLEDGE

1) Have a knowledge of the history and growth of Guiding in the country of its origin and through out the world.

2) Describe the organisation of the Guide Association in her own country, showing a knowledge of the work of the different branches and sections.

3) Be able to recognize members of the Association by the distinguishing marks on their uniform.

4) Know who holds the various appointments in her County, Division, and District.

5) Visit, with the co-operation of her Commissioner, at least three different kinds of unit, e.g. Brownie Pack, Hospital Company, Ranger Unit of a different section from her own, etc.

6) Help with a Guide activity, e.g. Guide Rally, Brownie Revels, Local Association Meeting, Guide Camp, Pack Holiday, etc.

7) Be able to interest other people, preferable those who are not conversant with Scouting and Guiding, in the chief aims and methods, traditions, and symbolism of the Scout and Guide Movement.


MOTOR MECHANIC

1) Wash and polish a car.

2) Have an elementary knowledge of:

a) The four-stroke internal combustion engine.

b) The 'drive' from engine to back wheels.

c) The function of the carburetor.

d) The water cooling system.

d) The electrical system.

3) a) Check oil levels in engine, steering box, and back axle.

b) Fill up with petrol, oil, and water.

c) Oil and grease a car.

d) Drain and refill a radiator.

e) Change a wheel.

f) Check and adjust tyre pressures; remove flints.

g) Mend a puncture (assistance permitted for removal and replacement of cover).

h) Clean and 'top-up' a battery.

I) Test, remove, clean, and replace sparking plugs.

j) Change a light bulb and fuse.

k) Disconnect an electric horn.

f) Change toe sump oil.

4) Understand the purpose of the oil gauge, and the meter on the dashboard.

5) Identify the different tools used in car maintenance; know how to use and look after them.


PUBLIC HEALTH

1) Explain briefly what is meant by the term 'Welfare State', with special reference to the following:

a) Medical and Nursing Services.

b) Hospital, Clinic, and Ambulance Services.

c) Maternity ad Child Welfare Services, including family allowances.

d) Care of Children.

e) Home Helps.

f) Widows' Pensions.

g) National Assistance.

2) Know the addresses of the hospitals in her area and the types of case treated in them.

3) Know how disease is spread in the home, office, and factory.

4) Know how food may be contaminated in food factory, shop, home, or during transport, and how this may be prevented through: hygenic handling; the use of protective clothing; the protection of food from dust, flies, etc.

Appreciate: the dangers inherent in cracked cups; the proper facilities for washing and sterilizing utensils; the efficient disposal of waste.

5) Know the source of water supply in her own area and the methods used by the authorities for ensuring its purity.

6) Know the importance of a pure milk supply, and the values of the different milk grades.

7) Know how and where the authorities collect and dispose of refuse and salvage.

8) Know what constitutes the public health nuisances and the methods of dealing with them.

9) Know now to ensure a good standard of daylength and artificial lighting, of heating, and of ventilation in a building.


SERVICE TO THE HANDICAPPED

1) Give regular personal service, over a period of not less than six months, to a handicapped person, or group of people, in one of the groups A, B, or C of clause 3.

2) Have a detailed knowledge of the statutory bodies and voluntary societies concerned with the welfare of people in one of these groups.

3) Pass two clauses under one of the following headings:

A. The Blind

i) Transcribe Braille, Grade II.

ii) Read Braille by sight and touch.

iii) Teach a handcraft to a blind person.

B. The Deaf

I) Converse a  with a deaf person who uses lip-reading.

ii) Interpret a conversation or a speech using the Manual Alphabet; or Converse with a deaf-blind person using the Manual Alphabet.

C. Other Physically Handicapped People

I) Teach a handcraft to a handicapped person.

ii) Help the person to maintain contact with the outside world, either by taking her out or bringing interesting things to her.

Know  what arrangements should be made when taking someone in a chair to church, theatre, and cinema.

Know local facilities for borrowing books, gramophone records, and pictures.

iii) Have a knowledge of apparatus used to increase the independence of the disabled who have:

a) Restricted mobility.

b) Restricted arm movements and limited reach.

iv) Fold, unfold, and oil any common type of invalid chair

Demonstrate three methods of lifting, one to be from a chair to a car.

1964 (Marcy) POR - Home Service


The holder of a certificate of a recognized Training College, or of the Advanced Housecraft Examination of the National Council for Domestic Studies, qualifies for the following certificates: Cook, Dressmaker, Finisher, Housecraft.


COOK

1) Possess a good cookery book; make a collection of recipes which she has used.

2) Be able to cook and serve all the following dishes:

Boiling: soup, meat, fish, fresh vegetables, puddings, porridge.

Steaming: vegetables, fish, suet and cake mixtures.

Stewing: meat and fruit.

Frying and Grilling: fish, meat, sausages, bacon, eggs, pancakes, fishcakes, rissoles.

Baking: pastry, scones, and plain cake mixture.

Miscellaneous: salads.

Note: One or more dishes form any of these groups are to be chosen by the tester for demonstration.  The candidate should not be told beforehand what  she is to cook, but she may use a cookery book.

3) Answer questions on the dishes just prepared, and know why different methods of cooking are used for various foods.

4) Wash up utensils, boards, etc.; know the uses of the various cleaning agents used.

5) Understand the principle of the hay box, and be able to use one.

Know the best method of storing foods, including perishable foodstuffs, in hot weather.

6) a) Have experience in home cookery.

b) Using recipes tested by herself draw up menus for three days for a family of four (father, mother, and two children).  The menus are to be well balanced and show a good knowledge of food values.

c) Make out a shopping list with prices for two of these days, and state what foods would already be in the house.

7) Understand how to make the best use of the stock pot and of 'left-over; foods.


DRESSMAKER

1) Know how to use, clean, and oil a sewing machine.

2) Show examples of the correct methods of patching plain and patterned materials, mending blankets, and darning stockings.

3) a) Make a Ranger shirt or equivalent garment with inset sleeves.

b) Make another article of clothing.

4) Carry out some kind of household mending for one month.

5) Cut out from a paper pattern.


ELECTRICIAN

1) Know the dangers of electric shock and the methods of rescue and resuscitation.

2) Have an elementary knowledge of the three effects of an electric current (magnetic, chemical, and heating).

3) Understand the meaning of the following terms: ampere, bolt, ohm, watt, and B. of T. unit.  e able to apply Ohm's Law and calculate the cost of running electric lamps and heaters.  Read a meter.

4) Understand the working of electric irons, stoves, and bells.

5) pass one of the following clauses:

a) Rewire damaged flex to a standard or hanging lamp.

b) Wire an emergency bell.

c) Understand the use of fuse wire in a circuit; mend a fuse.

6) Test a torch bulb for broken filament with an electric battery.


FINISHER

1) Wash and finish the following:

a) A fine muslin article.

b) A lace article, e.g. an 8-in. wide collar or equivalent.

c) Table linen, e.g. a tablecloth 1 yd. square or equivalent.

d) A woolen garment.

e) A blouse or jumper made of nylon silk, or artificial silk.

2) Starch and iron a cotton blouse or other garment.

3) Know how to fold finished articles correctly.

4) Describe the routine of washing day.  Remove stains.

Note: The tester may require any of the clauses to be demonstrated.


HANDYWOMAN

1) Work a sewing machine and understand putting in a needle, cleaning, oiling, etc.

2) Know where to turn off at the main, the gas, water, and electricity supplies (if laid on in her own home); know the immediate steps to be taken fir burst pipes, gas leaks, and blown fuses.

3) Replace electric light bulbs; or renew gas mantles; or clean and trim an oil lamp.

4) Clean and repaint with at least two coats one of the following: hot-water can, table, door, window frame, or equivalent.

5) Pass one of the following clauses, if necessary with assistance:

a) Distemper a room.

b) Paper a room.

c) Clean, stain, and polish a floor.

d) Whitewash a ceiling.

6) Pass eight of the following clauses: a) Clean paint brushes.

b) Remove paint from material.

c) Sharpen a knife on a hone, grindstone, or whetstone

d) Mend a handle or pole by glueing and whipping.

e) Splice a rope.

f) Repair china.

g) Repair a wooden article with glue.

h) Mend a puncture or repair a rubber article with patch and rubber solution.

i) Mend a saucepan, or equivalent.

j) Renew a washer.

k) Renew a spring in a door handle.

l) Know the precautions to take against frost; demonstrate method of thawing pipes.

7) a) Tie a parcel or a large bundle; or rope up a case.

b) Make a useful article for the house; or upholster a small chair or stool.

c) Know how to use a hammer, screwdriver, and gimlet.


HOME PLANNING

Both parts must be taken to qualify.

Part I

1) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of living in a) a house; b) a flat; c) a bungalow.  Express her reasoned likes and dislikes.

2) Give her views on the planning of houses, flats, and bungalows with regard to the following points:

a) Number of bedrooms, living-rooms, and store-rooms; the desirability of fitted cupboards.

b) Separate living-and dining-rooms compared with living-room having a dining recess.

c) Separate kitchen and dining-room compared with kitchen having a dining area.

d) Kitchen overlooking living-room (for supervision of children).

3) a) Make a model or sketch showing a kitchen which would be suitable for her own family.  Give reasons for the shape chosen and for the arrangement in relation to one another of cooker, sink, draining board, working table, clothes washing area, store, larder, windows, and door.

b) List, in order of desirability, from her own family's point of view, such items of kitchen equipment as: refrigerator, washing machine, boiler, clothes dryer, food mixer, etc., and include any further items considered desirable.

Part II

Pass two of the following causes: 

1) Consider the principal defects likely to be found in an old dwelling, e.g. dry rot, settlement cracks, roof leaks, loose plaster, woodwork, etc.

2) Understand:

a) The uses, advantages, and disadvantages of various decorating materials, e.g. enamel, emulsion, and synthetic paints; washable and non-washable distempers; wall-papers; etc.

b) The importance of easily maintained finishes.

3) a) The colours of rooms have an effect on the people living or working in them.  Know something about these effects.

b) Bearing in mind the aspect of the room suggest colour schemes and decoration for kitchen, bedroom, nursery, and living-room.

c) To show the effect of the scheme chosen for one of these rooms either submit patterns of materials, colours, etc., or make a coloured sketch.

Note: Testers are to give as much credit for general overall knowledge as for specialised knowledge.

Drawings and models to scale are not required.

At least part of the test is to be taken orally.

Candidates will appreciate the importance of having professional advice when acquiring property.


HOUSECRAFT

1) Draw up a statement of detailed expenditure for a week, with an exact account of meals provided.

Note: Particulars of wages and family are to be given by the tester.

2) Give satisfactory evidence that she has a practical knowledge of housekeeping, including: the purpose and storage of different kinds of food; methods of keeping a house clean and well ventilated; care of linen and blankets; the disposal of refuse.

3) Prepare bottled fruit, pickles, jam, or equivalent.

4) Remove stains from carpets, table linen, brass, etc.

5) Be able to mend a fuse.

6) Know how to act as hostess; to include sending out invitations, laying the table, arranging flowers, receiving and entertaining guests.

1964 (March) POR - Nursing Service


FIRST AID

The holder of one of the following qualifies for the certificate:

The Adult First Aid Certificate of the British Red Cross Society.

The Adult First Aid Certificate of the St John's Ambulance Association.

The Adult First Aid Certificate of the St. Andrew's Ambulance Association.

The London County Council Certificate in First Aid (Senior)


HOME NURSING

The holder of one of the following qualifies for the certificate:

The Adult Home Nursing Certificate of the British Red Cross Society.

The Adult Home Nursing Certificate of the St. John Ambulance Association.

The Adult Home Nursing Certificate in Home Nursing (Senior).

The Preliminary State Examination Certificate in General Nursing.

National Hospital Service Reserve (Auxiliary Nurse) Certificate.


HYGIENE

The holder of one of the following qualifies for the certificate:

The Adult Hygiene Certificate of the British Red Cross Society.

The Adult Hygiene Certificate of the St John Ambulance Association

The Preliminary State Examination Certificate in General Nursing.


SAMARITAN

Both parts must be taken to qualify.

Part I

1) Know the position of the principal bones, and how to prevent further injury in the case of fractures or dislocations.  Make and pad a splint; demonstrate how to treat sprains and strains; be able to act as assistant in the splinting of fractures.

2) Apply a triangular bandage to the head, elbow, hand, knee, ankle, and foot.  Demonstrate three types of arm sling.

3) Distinguish between arterial bleeding and venous bleeding.  Know: the position of the main arteries; how to check bleeding; how to treat nose bleeding.

4) Know the methods of supporting a patient single-handed, and carrying with the help of others.

5) Render First Aid in the following cases: burns and scalds, both severe and slight; blisters; choking; bites; stings; grit in the eye; wounds, both clean and dirty.

6) Know the chief signs and treatment of the following: fainting, hysteria, shock, fits, suspected concussion, internal haemorrhage.  Understand the general treatment of an unconscious patient.

7) Demonstrate the Holger Nielsen method of artificial respiration, and know when it should be applied.  Have attended a demonstration of the expired air method of artificial respiration on film or film strip, or performed live by a qualified demonstrator.

Part II

1) Understand the value of warmth and fresh air in sickness; demonstrate the ventilation of a given sick room.

2) Understand the care of a patient; make a bed with a patient in it.  Improvise and show how to use; draw sheet, hot water bottles, foot cradle, knee pillow (donkey), and back rest.  Know how to give a bed pan and how to prevent bed sores.  Understand the care of the mouth and hair.

3) Take and record temperature, pulse, and respiration; know the normal temperature , and what constitutes a serious variation.

4) Know the general precautions necessary when nursing infectious cases, including the common cold.

5) Make and apply fomentations, and cold compresses.  Understand the reasons for care in giving medicines, aperients, stimulants, and sedatives.

6) Apply a roller bandage for finger, thumb, ankle, knee, eye, ear, and head.

7) Make barley water, nourishing broth, a milk food, and three dishes suitable for invalids on a light diet.

Note: 

I) The Girl Guides Association Book of First Aid and Rescue Work is to be used by instructors and candidates.

ii) The tester must be a qualified doctor or nurse, but in exceptional circumstances the County Commissioner may approach a Red Cross instructor or other qualified official.

iii) Instructors are required to pass this certificate on a teaching basis or hold a higher qualification.

iv) The teaching and testing of the Samaritan certificate is to be as practical as possible, aiming at developing the candidate's power of quick thinking in an emergency.

1964 (March) POR - Outdoor Service


ASTRONOMER

1) Pass the test for the Guide Star Gazer badge.

2) Have a knowledge of the solar system:

a) The Sun: its dimensions and constitution, sun spot cycle, the corona and prominences.

b) The Moon: its dimensions, movement, and phases.

c) The Planets (including Pluto): their relative sizes, distance from the sun, periods of rotation and revolution, satellites, Bode's Law.

d) Comets and Meteors: their relationship to each other.

3) Understand what is meant by altitude, sight, ascension, declination, celestial pole, zenith, ecliptic, zodiac, celestial equator, circumpolar stars, equinox, day and night, and the seasons.

4) Explain the reasons for the eclipses of the sun and the moon.

5) Know what is meant by a fixed star, novae, star clusters, and nebulae; have a knowledge of star magnitudes and chief constellations.

6) Have made observations of the movements of the heavenly bodies, including the moon, planets, and fixed stars.

7) Understand the use of astronomical data as given in an abbreviated Whitaker's Almanac or in Pear's Cyclopedia.

8) With proper safeguards use a small telescope and observe as far as possible sun spots, meteors, the moon's surface, eclipses, the planets, double stars, nebulae, and clusters.


CAMPCRAFT

Have camped under canvas for at least two week-ends as a Cadet or Ranger.

Note: I) one of these must have been a mobile or lightweight camp.

ii) A candidate who has held the P.L. permit is required to camp at only one Cadet/Ranger week-end.

Test: 

I) Be responsible for pitching and striking a tent; know how to care for it in fine and wet weather and carry out small repairs.  Erect suitable screening and have a knowledge of camp sanitation.

ii) Show a knowledge of cooking out-of-doors and know how to store food.

Alternative: The Junior Quartermaster certificate.

iii) Know the precautions to take when lighting a fire in any surroundings and how to deal with an outbreak of fire.  Identify six different kinds of tree and know their respective value as firewood.  Use an axe.

iv) Be able to render First Aid in an emergency.

Alternative: The Camp /Firs Aid Certificate.

v) Draw up a list of personal camp kit.  Prove her ability to keep bedding and clothing aired and free from damp.

vi) Improvise: one useful camp gadget without string or nails; one using square or diagonal lashing.

Note: The tester for this certificate must be a qualified camper nominated by the C.C.A.

The test may be taken at a mobile, lightweight, or standing camp.

A permit is necessary before the holder may run a camp.


CLIMBER

1) Hold the Hill-Walker certificate.

2) Follow a competent leader up six moderately difficult climbs in a mountain district and show ability and judgement.

3) Lead the tester on any other competent climber up an easy climb.

4) Identify a climb with the help of a guide book.

5) Understand the care required for the health and safety of a party on the hills, including the extra precautions required in winter.

6) Read at least one book on mountaineering, in addition to the book read for the Hill-Walker certificate.


EXPLORER

1) Submit a record of explorations carried out over a period of at least six months.

Note: The expeditions carried out in connection with the Ranger Service star (clause 2) and the Achievement of the Land Ranger Adventurer test may be included.

2) Go on a two-day exploration of unknown country, preferably more than fifty miles from her home.

Note: The tester is to supply maps and instructions.


FORESTER

1) Have worked at least one week in a forest, or sawmill, or nursery.

2) a) Understand sowing and transplanting trees in a nursery; know the age at which trees are plated out; or

b) Understand the principles of thinning, and what is meant by light demanders and shade bearers.

3) Know the time of year to plant, and two methods of planting.

4) Recognise at least six ordinary forest trees; know where they are usually planted and why.

5) Use a crosscut saw, or axe, or hatchet.  Fell a tree with one helper, and sned it, measure it and read its volume from a Hoppus measurer

6) Know the meaning of: beating up, tilth, scantling, band saw, 2 year 2 year, natural regeneration, creosote.


HILL-WALKER

1) Have a knowledge of equipment required and precautions to take on hills.

2) Go up four mountains of approximately 2,000 ft., or where is not possible, go for four expeditions of at least twelve miles each over rough hilly country.

3) Pass the First Aid clause of the Ranger Service star (or equivalent); know the International distress signal.

4) a) Follow a map in unknown, hilly country.

b) Use a compass in the mist or dark.

5) a) Understand the use and care of ropes.

b) Tie the bowline and double overhand.

c) Know the use of the  belay.

6) Follow a competent leader up one easy climb.

Note: This is usually, but not necessarily, an easy rock climb.

7) Read a book on mountaineering.

8) Know the technical terms used in climbing.


JUNIOR QUARTERMASTER

Have had experience in the Quartermaster Department of small camps.

Test: 

i) Draw up a menu for eight people for three days and a list of necessary stores and kitchen equipment.

ii) Know the essentials to be observed in: the storage of food; the care of utensils; the organisation of washing up; the disposal of refuse; the care of grease pit.

iii) Prepare, cook, and serve a meal to include: vegetables; a fish, meat, cheese, or egg dish; a sweet; a hot drink.

iv) Answer questions on the food value of the dishes chosen.

v) Make a fire-place and a wood pile.


LAND-GIRL

Bring a statement of good work from a farmer or other responsible person with whom she has worked.

Any one part must be taken to qualify.

I Landwork

1) Have worked on a farm.

2) Understand the general plan of arable farming; know the seasonal work which is done in the farmer's locality.

3) Show some knowledge of livestock; what breeds of cattle, horse, sheep, and pig are common to the locality; for what they are used.  Have worked either with dairy cows, store cattle, pigs, sheep, or horses.

4) Have a knowledge of one of the following:

a) Pedigree stock.

b) The distinguishing characteristics of three varieties of wheat and two varieties of oats and barley.

c) The care and working of farm machinery.

II Dairymaid

1) Have assisted in the care of dairy cows.

2) Show proficiency as a good dry hand milker, or dismantle milking machines.  Be able to strip cows thoroughly.

3) Know why cooling, sterilizing, etc., are necessary.  Be able to weigh milk and fill or seal churns or bottles.

4) Make butter or cheese, or feed calves.

5) Know something of the different designations, and understand: milk recording or the Attested Scheme, or the function of the M.M.B.

III Poultry Farmer

1) Have worked among poultry.

2) Have reared chicks with hens or incubator and brooder, or have reared ducklings or goslings.

3) Have looked after:

a) Laying hens.

b) A breeding hen; or fattening cockerels.

4) Understanding housing; feeding; disinfecting against insect pests; packing and grading eggs.

5) Have helped in dealing with at least two poultry ills.

IV - Horticulturist

1) Have worked in a garden.

2) Understand the seasonal work for growing hardy flowers and vegetables, and two semi-hardy vegetables, e.g. celery, tomatoes, etc.

3) Show experience of fruit growing (four varieties), or work in a glasshouse.

4) Be able to prune and take cuttings; explain the workings of the garden to a visitor.

V Bee Keeper

1) Have complete charge of a hive of bees.

2) Have taken and hived a swarm, and have fed bees.

3) Have assembled a hive; and extracted and bottled honey.

4) Have some knowledge of the life of the bee and of the bee community.

5) Understand honey production; know the flowers visited by bees for nectar and pollen.

6) Know the precautions to be taken against bee stings and the treatment for them.

VI - Rabbit Keeper

1) Have kept rabbits.

2) Have reared two litters.

3) Understand housing, both indoor and out.

4) Make a chart of suitable feeding stuffs for summer and winter; name some unsuitable foodstuffs which might be given by the inexperienced.

5) Know the ordinary rabbit ailments, their prevention and cure.

6) Name and describe six different breeds and their uses.

7) Understand simple methods of crossing and breeding.

VII - Horsewoman

1) Catch, water, and groom a horse or pony; saddle it or harness it to a cart or trap.

2) Riding: Mount and ride a horse or pony, showing ability to control her mount , walking, trotting, and cantering, and to take it over small jumps; or

Driving: Drive a harness horse or pony through gates, in traffic, and down hill.

3) Understand the main principles of feeding, and the care of horses when stabled and at grass.

4) Understand cleaning and care of harness.  Keep sables and harness-room clean and tidy.

5) Understand elementary principles of harnessing, biting, and shoeing to ensure the comfort of the horse.  Know how to prevent and relieve sore backs and shoulders, girth galls, and broken hooves.

6) Know when a horse is lame or in poor condition, and be able to treat any of the more obvious causes of lameness, such as a stone in the shoe.

7) Show that she understand something of the temperament of horses and uses tact and common sense in handling them.

A holder of the 'B' Certificate of the Pony Club qualifies for the certificate.


LOCAL KNOWLEDGE

Either part may be taken to qualify.

I - History

This test may be taken in the Ranger's own locality or in her county.

1) Know the origin of eight local place-names.

2) Know a story of the vicinity, or a legend, or a dance.

3) Know the life story of at least three 'local worthies', e.g. saints, heroes, heroines, philanthropists, statesmen, authors, artists, scientists, or other persons of historical or artistic importance, who have spent part of their lives in the neighbourhood.

4) a) Have visited six places of historical interest in the vicinity, and answer questions about them,; or

b) Give a short account of six important events that have taken place in the district.

5) a) Give a description of the district at two different periods in the past, e.g. Norman, Early English, etc.; or

b) Know and describe the implements, pottery, ornaments, inscriptions, etc., that have been found in local excavations.

II - Social Knowledge

The syllabus is based on the candidate's knowledge of her own neighbourhood

1) Have performed acts of civic helpfulness in the town or village, with the approval of some competent authority.

2) Know and describe, with fair accuracy as to position and area, all the public open spaces (commons, parks, gardens, recreation fields,), the public swimming-baths, and play-centres.

3) Guide a stranger to the town hall, guildhall, village halls, and other centres of municipal government.

4) Know the position of police stations, fire stations, fire alarms and the organization for dealing with fire.

5) Know: the positions of the main public institutions: the use to which they are put and something of their relation to the larger social systems, national or provincial, of which they form a part.

6) a) Know the names of the main roads and railways passing through the district, whence and whither they lead; or

b) Describe the means of communication, transport, lighting, water and power supply of the community.


WOODCRAFT

1) Keep a nature diary or three months, containing not less than sixty entries.

2) Pass one of the following clauses:

a) Recognise twenty birds in the field by appearance, flight, call, notes or song.  Know their haunts, nests and habits.

b) Recognise fifty different plants, know their habitat, flowering season, and method of seed dispersal (fungi and mosses may be included).

c) Keep a daily weather chart for two months; identify the different types of clouds and know what they portend.

d) Identify the four constellations grouped round the Pole Star, know their relative positions in December, March, June, and September; identify six other constellations visible in winter and six visible in summer.

3) Identify twenty trees by their leaves, flowers, fruit, and twigs; recognize them at 50 yds. distance and know the uses of their woods.

4) Have seen and be able to describe the appearance and habits of two wild animals that live in the vicinity.

For Town Rangers only:

When circumstances make clause 4 impossible an extra section under clause 2 may be substituted.

1964 (March) POR - World Service


COMMONWEALTH KNOWLEDGE

1) Know the history of the growth of the British Commonwealth of Nations and be able to tell the stories of at least four Empire builders.

2) Make a special study of one Dominion, or two Colonies, and show a knowledge of the history, geography, types of people, agriculture, industries, songs and dances, famous men and women, etc.

3) Keep a list of books read about the chosen country/countries, fact or fiction.

4) Have corresponded for at least a year with someone living in one of the chosen countries.

5) Know when and why the United Nations was founded.  Have some knowledge of the aims and activities of two of its specialized agencies or commissions, e.g. World Health Organisation; Food and Agricultural Organisation; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation; Human Rights Commission; etc.


INTERNATIONAL KNOWLEDGE

1) Take every opportunity of meeting people of other nationalities.  Make contact with at least one person of another country (not necessarily a Ranger) in her own locality.

2) Choose one country (not within the British Commonwealth of Nations) and show an outline knowledge of its geography, agriculture, industries, history, peoples, customs, famous men and women.  Make a pictorial record of her work as it progresses, and choose one aspect of this outline for special study, e.g. art, a particular industry, achievements of a notable person, etc.  Know something of the history of its Guide Association(s), if any.

3) Have a knowledge of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, i.e. its organization, functions and publications.  Point out on a map of the world countries which are members of the World Association.

4) Know when and why the United Nations was founded.  Have some knowledge of the aims and activities of two of its specialized agencies or commissions, e.g. World Health Organisation; Food and Agricultural Organisation; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation; Human Rights Commission; etc.


LINGUIST

1) Write a letter in a foreign language welcoming a visitor to the candidate's own country and arranging to meet her.

2) Meet a visitor on arrival; take her shopping (or marketing) and sightseeing, conducting the expedition in the chosen language, and showing that she can be of real service to a stranger in her own neighbourhood.

3) Know something about the available boat, train, and air services of her own country, and where to get detailed information.

4) Read and translate at sight a paragraph of a newspaper written in the chosen language.

Note: The tester may impersonate the visitor if necessary.